1. _______ drugs focus on efforts to change the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors concentrate serotonin in synapses between neurons.
A. Mood stabilizer
2. In the process of Freudian psychoanalysis, patients may come to think of the therapist as a symbol of their feelings for a parent, lover, or abuser. This phenomenon is referred as
A. latent content.
B. free association.
3. In the context of trends in community psychology, which statement is true?
A. Psychoactive drugs have greatly increased the need to physically restrain mental patients.
B. Telephone hotlines are a negative development in community psychology.
C. A high proportion of homeless adults suffer from a psychological disorder.
D. Deinstitutionalization has been greatly decreased in recent years.
4. Lois and Lang are in a heated discussion over the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Lois maintains that psychotherapy works for most people. Lang argues that it doesn’t work for everyone. Who is correct?
A. Lois is correct.
B. Lang is correct.
C. Neither Lois nor Lang is correct.
D. Both Lois and Lang are correct.
5. After Darryl spends some time watching a boy his age happily playing with a dog, Darryl begins to lose his fear of dogs. Which approach to psychotherapy is best illustrated in this scenario?
C. Dialectical behavior therapy
D. Operant conditioning
6. A very large sample, representing the population of the United States, was drawn to study the prevalence of psychological disorders. The second most commonly reported disorder, after depression, was
B. posttraumatic stress disorder.
C. panic disorders.
D. alcohol dependency.
7. In which of these statements is the scientific rationale for distinguishing Type I and Type II most clearly illustrated?
A. The symptomatic profile for Type I and Type II schizophrenia is different.
B. Type I schizophrenics are most likely to be a threat to themselves and others.
C. Type II schizophrenics are most likely to be a threat to themselves and others.
D. If subjects X and Y are identical twins and X is diagnosed with Type 1 schizophrenia, we can be nearly 100 percent assured that Y will also develop Type I schizophrenia.
8. The _______ perspective on psychological disorders has been criticized for relying on unscientific and nonverifiable information.
9. Regarding possible environmental causes of schizophrenia, the concept of expressed emotion refers to an interactive style characterized by
A. hostility, criticism, and intrusiveness.
B. practical jokes.
C. withdrawal and isolation.
D. obsessive perfectionism.
10. For the psychologist, abnormal behavior can be thought of as expressing distress of some kind that obstructs one’s ability to function. Because this is such a broad definition, it’s best to think of the range of behaviors from normal to abnormal as
A. observable patterns.
B. statistical variations.
C. entirely dependent on diagnostic assumptions.
D. lying along a continuum.
11. Which of the following statements regarding the DSM-IV-TR is most accurate?
A. Critics agree that the DSM-IV-TR system of classification has successfully increased the reliability of diagnoses without necessarily increasing their validity.
B. The DSM-IV-TR offers therapists a means of determining causal factors underlying a specific psychological disorder.
C. Critics of DSM-IV-TR argue that the classification system overemphasizes physiological factors associated with specified disorders.
D. The DSM-IV-TR offers therapists a firm foundation for estimating the degree to which a given individual is afflicted with a specified disorder.
12. Which symptoms would psychiatrists or psychologists associate with Type II, negative-symptom schizophrenia?
A. Paranoid delusions
B. Presence of emotional extremes
C. Social withdrawal
13. Regarding perspectives on abnormality, what is the common ground between the medical and psychoanalytic perspectives?
A. Both view abnormal behaviors as learned behaviors.
B. Both assume that people’s thoughts and beliefs underlie problematic behavior.
C. Both view abnormal behaviors as symptoms of underlying problems.
D. Both view abnormal behavior as rooted in biological processes.
14. Which therapeutic approach does not require the presence of a psychological professional?
A. Interpersonal therapy
B. Humanistic therapy
C. Family therapy
D. Self-help therapy
15. Which of the following statements regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is true?
A. Side-effects may include memory loss that lasts for years.
B. Disorientation and confusion always accompany ECT therapy.
C. It isn’t known why ECT works when it does work.
D. Depression doesn’t return after ECT treatments have been concluded.
16. Xenophobia is to fear of strangers as claustrophobia is to fear of
B. social situations.
D. enclosed spaces.
17. When Dr. Payne prescribes lithium for a bipolar disorder, she understands that
A. lithium is mainly successful in treating the depressive aspect of the disorder.
B. antidepressants are counter-indicated when a patient is being treated with lithium.
C. lithium can prevent reoccurrence of manic episodes.
D. the specific neurological effects of Lithium have long been recognized.
18. A therapist determined that Alice depends on relationships with others to find some shaky ground for her self-identity. In this context, Alice has always been devastated by rejection of any kind. Alice is most
End of exam
likely to be diagnosed as suffering from a/an
A. antisocial personality disorder.
B. borderline personality disorder.
C. sociopathic personality.
D. narcissistic personality disorder.
19. The key theme in humanistic therapy is
C. emotional expression.
D. philosophical reasoning.
20. Which of the following statements about autism is correct?
A. It usually appears within the first three years of life.
B. Autistic children seek out social contact.
C. Verbal communication is impaired, while nonverbal expression is normal.
D. About one in every 1,500 children will develop symptoms of autism.