1. Psychologists generally agree that personality (Points : 1) refers mostly to surface traits.
is largely inherited.
can be explained by several different theories.
can best be explained by a single theory.
2. The personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories, and social experiences of personality theorists help shape their theories. The discipline that deals with these factors is called (Points : 1) personology.
the psychology of science.
3. Part of the internal consistency of a theory is (Points : 1) a taxonomy.
a set of operational definitions.
its agreement with older, more established theories.
its empirical validity.
4. Which of these is NOT a function of a useful theory? (Points : 1) It will generate research.
It will be consistent with one’s philosophy of life.
It organizes observations.
It serves as a guide to action.
5. The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to (Points : 1) transform unconscious material into consciousness.
eliminate all neurotic symptoms.
bring about self-actualization.
6. Shevrin, Ghannam, and Libet recently found that the defense mechanism of ______ might have a neurophysiologic basis. (Points : 1) sublimation
7. The use of Freudian defense mechanisms requires an (Points : 1) expenditure of psychic energy.
extremely strong superego.
immediate return to primary narcissism.
exposure of the superego to prolonged anxiety.
8. Freud abandoned his _______ theory in 1897, the year after his father died. (Points : 1) seduction
9. Adler referred to ideas that have no real existence yet influence people as if they really existed as (Points : 1) delusions.
10. Adler’s concern for the whole person led to his (Points : 1) developing treatments for cancer.
becoming a rabbi.
11. During the time that Freud and Adler were members of the Wednesday Psychological Society, ____________________. (Points : 1) Adler considered Freud to be his mentor.
Freud prevented Adler from holding office in the organization.
they shared a warm personal relationship.
they conspired to prevent Carl Jung from joining the organization.
None of these is correct.
12. According to Adler, _____ is the most reliable means of revealing style of life. (Points : 1) the word association test
13. Which of these people is most likely to represent Jung’s hero archetype? (Points : 1) a frightened person who overcomes fear to save another person from harm
an immortal person who fights to keep another person from harm
a man who overcomes his anima and thus becomes more desirable
a woman who overcomes her animus and thus becomes more desirable
14. Jung’s anarchic phase of childhood is (Points : 1) easily recalled by most adults.
the source of adult dreams.
characterized by a highly differentiated consciousness.
characterized by a chaotic and sporadic consciousness.
15. Jung’s archetype of wisdom and meaning is the (Points : 1) anima.
wise old man.
16. Jung called the feminine side of males the (Points : 1) shadow.
17. Horney came to psychoanalysis from (Points : 1) art.
18. According to Horney, Western society hinders people’s attempts to find love by (Points : 1) rewarding competitiveness.
limiting feelings of free choice.
All of these are correct.
None of these is correct.
19. Children who feel isolated from others are likely to develop Horney’s neurotic trend of moving (Points : 1) with others.
away from others.
20. “A feeling of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world” is Horney’s definition of (Points : 1) basic dread.
21. For Fromm, the drive for union with another person or persons reflects the human need of (Points : 1) transcendence.
a sense of identity.
a frame of orientation.
none of these.
22. According to Fromm, both masochism and sadism aim at (Points : 1) increasing basic anxiety through unity with others.
decreasing basic anxiety through destruction of others.
increasing basic anxiety through destruction of others.
decreasing basic anxiety through unity with others.
23. Fromm’s most basic assumption is that personality must be understood in the light of (Points : 1) biology.
24. In Fromm’s view, the burden of freedom results in (Points : 1) primal guilt.
25. Erikson suggested that the basic strength of the play age is (Points : 1) trust.
26. Erikson’s additions to Freudian theory included (Points : 1) elevating social factors above biological factors.
discounting the ego in personality development.
accepting Jung’s idea of the collective unconscious.
all of these.
none of these.
27. The belief of many Nazis that Germans represented the “master race” illustrates Erikson’s concept of (Points : 1) group ego.
28. Erikson characterized the oral-sensory phase as a _________ mode of adaptation. (Points : 1) dystonic
29. According to Skinner, abused children may choose to remain with their parents because (Points : 1) one parent may be rewarding them while the other is abusive.
they may lack the means of countercontrol.
they may be receiving a powerful intermittent reward.
Any or all of these reasons are correct.
30. What Freud saw as unconsciously motivated defense mechanisms, Skinner viewed as (Points : 1) consciously motivated defense mechanisms.
attempts to protect the self-concept against anxiety.
behaviors shaped by environmental contingencies.
unsuccessful attempts to defend the ego against guilt.
31. Skinner viewed the unhealthy personality as (Points : 1) being essentially genetic in origin.
a means of coping with excessive social control.
stemming from internal conflict.
lacking in productive interpersonal relationships.
32. Heather has a painful headache. She takes some aspirin and the pain stops. In the future when she has a headache, she will also take aspirin. Skinner would say that the taking of aspirin to reduce headache pain is (Points : 1) positively reinforced.
33. The bureaucrat who answers criticism by responding “That’s the way things are done around here” is using Bandura’s disengagement technique of (Points : 1) palliative comparison.
displacement of responsibility.
34. Megan compares her test grade with that of other class members to determine her test performance. She is using which of Bandura’s judgmental processes? (Points : 1) personal standards
standards of reference
35. In Bandura’s theory, chance encounters enter at which point in the triadic reciprocal cauastion paradigm? (Points : 1) person
36. Compared to Skinner’s approach, Bandura’s theory is more (Points : 1) cognitive.
37. Allport contended that adult motives are (Points : 1) totally unconscious in their nature.
different from children’s motives.
a form of homeostatic regulation.
tied to a single master drive or motive.
38. To Allport, the most important structures of personality are (Points : 1) personal disposition and proprium.
primary traits and secondary traits.
cardinal traits and primary traits.
common traits and superfactors.
39. According to Allport, any symptom that cannot be extinguished through psychotherapy, or does not change as self-concept changes, is (Points : 1) homeostatic in tendency.
a propriate striving.
40. For Allport, the human personality implies (Points : 1) both process and product.
both substance and change.
both order and diversification.
All of these are correct.
41. In factor analysis, correlations of scores with factors are called (Points : 1) factor loadings.
42. In general, research testing the Five-Factor model across cultures has revealed (Points : 1) that language differences make it too difficult to measure trait similarities.
that trait factor approaches are best applied to Western cultures.
translation problems with the tools used as insurmountable in research.
that traits appear to be consistent in most countries of the world.
43. The Five-Factor Theory rests on a single causal influence on personality traits. What is it? (Points : 1) culture
44. At present, most researchers who study personality traits favor the idea that _________ dominant traits emerge from the statistical techniques used to sift through volumes of test data. (Points : 1) 5